ethiopiantimes

June 29, 2012

Songs and Images of Dictatorship in Ethiopia

Filed under: Azeb Mesfin,Ethiopia,Meles Zenawi — ethiopiantimes @ 10:18 pm
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Meles Zenawi and the Cult of Personality

Left: Meles Zenawi’s image dominates Ethiopia. Right: Statue of Kim Jong-il. Photo: flickr user Joseph A. Ferris III, Creative Commons.

In 2008 I had to visit the central police investigation headquarters in Addis Ababa. In one of the offices I noticed that there were two images of the Prime Minister: One on the back of a postcard on the table, and the second in a frame behind the officer.

  1. Ethiopiques
  2. Why does a country with her own unique alphabet and long history of writing persist to deny citizens the right to freedom of expression in this era of Expression? No other country in Africa may typify this paradox more than Ethiopia. As Leopold Senghor’s famous collection of poems entitled “Ethiopiques” remained ‘powerful and popula’ so does the source of his intriguing title, Ethiopia, in her own ways. In “Ethiopiques,” I share Ethiopian views on pertinent issues related to journalism, culture and, of course, the overarching subject of politics.
  3. Mesfin Negash
  4. Mesfin Negash is an Ethiopian journalist living in exile in Sweden. He is one of the journalists accused of “terrorism” in 2011 by the Ethiopian government. The co-founder and first editor-in-chief of an acclaimed Ethiopian newspaper, Addis Neger, he is currently the Managing Editor of Addisnegeronline.com. He is a political science student by training and known for his critical commentaries on significant political and social issues.

Thanks to my acquaintance with the officer, our discussion turned friendly after a few minutes. As I bid farewell I dropped a passing remark about the two images. “Have you bought the images, or are they awards?” It was becoming customary to give the image of PM Meles Zenawi as prizes or awards to “top performing” employees in some places.

The officer smiled, “The party publishes the images, the police buy and distribute. If you refuse to hang this picture, you will be demoted for fictitious reasons. Trust me, by next year they will order us to hang his image around our neck.”

Dictators throughout history have some kind of obsession with their own image. From Ramses II of Egypt in 1400 BC, to Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia in 2012, erecting one’s own image has remained a common denominator among dictators. But some dictators demand more than just images or statues. Kim Il Sung had a song praising him as the saviour of North Korea. Ben Ali, Hosni Mubarak, and Muhammad Gaddafi were among the most notorious for covering all visible walls with their images. Their countries not only had to invest in erecting those symbols of repression and despair, they also had to pay to dismantle them.

Ethiopia’s PM Meles Zenawi is following the footsteps of these brutal dictators in building a cult of personality. Images depicting him as a national hero and a visionary leader who is beloved by his people have been posted everywhere. Additionally, a once vocal critic-turned-blind-supporter has released a song praising the beauty of Meles Zenawi’s eyebrows. Yes, his eyebrows. No one knows what leadership has to do with the beauty of one’s eyebrows, but the song is calling the PM to continue leading the country with his unparalleled wisdom. “Yketil liku sew,” it says: Let the wise man continue leading us. Call it “Kim syndrome” as the song is a mild Ethiopian version of Kim Il-Sung’s song.

To complete the irony, PM Meles Zenawi once told us that he doesn’t like personality cults and doesn’t allow or encourage his image to be posted everywhere. Next he will tell us that he wasn’t aware of the images of him all over the country. However, in a typical dictatorial style his images are all becoming larger, more visible, and more imposing. Local authorities even compete to impress their party bosses with the best images of Zenawi. His party has no image but of him.

But none of the images or songs impress the public. Recently his new image, posted in one of the popular squares in the capital, disappeared shortly after its erection.

The police officer I met in 2008 brings to mind Vaclav Havel’s famous greengrocer:

“We have seen that the real meaning of the greengrocer’s slogan has nothing to do with what the text of the slogan actually says. Even so, this real meaning is quite clear and generally comprehensible because the code is so familiar: the greengrocer declares his loyalty (and he can do no other if his declaration is to be accepted) in the only way the regime is capable of hearing…”

June 28, 2012

82 Ethiopian nationals escaping dictator Zenawi’s oppression detained in Malawi

Filed under: Ethiopia — ethiopiantimes @ 4:31 pm
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By Masoud Masasi, The Citizen Correspondent
Dodoma. The police here have detained 82 people believed to be Ethiopian nationals over illegal entry into the country. Regional Police Commander (RPC) Mr Zelothe Stephen said the suspects were arrested on Tuesday at Chitego Village in Kongwa District.

A statement issued by the regional police boss said the suspected illegal migrants come from Kambata, Hadia and Sirite villages in Ethiopia and  entered the country via Kenya.

The RPC issued the statement a day after it was established that 43 suspected illegal immigrants from Ethiopia had died due to lack of air and food in a lorry’s container. They were travelling to southern countries.

The driver, who is still at large, abandoned the lorry, the dead bodies and survivors, who were in a bad condition after establishing that some of them had died.

The lorry, the bodies and survivors were abandoned at a roadside and were found on Tuesday morning by villagers who, informed the police.

“After we were notified we sent our team to the village some 114 kilometres from Dodoma town and managed to arrest 82 people over illegal entry.

“In addition to the survivors, most of who were in a bad condition, we also found 43 bodies of people, who had apparently died due to lack of air and food,” said Mr Stephen.

He said after abandoning them, the survivors started walking from the area and were arrested near Izava Village in Chamwino District.

The RPC said in collaboration with the villagers, they managed to nab 82 people and there was no report if there were some people, who managed to escape the police net.

He said during interrogation, the suspects, who speak bad English, said they were from Ethiopia and entered the country via Kenya.

“They told us that they boarded two lorries to Arusha and continued with their journey to Dodoma and wanted to go to Malawi. They said they started their journey about five months ago,” he said in the statement.

He noted that they told the police that there was a group of people in Nairobi, Kenya, who had arranged transport for them to Malawi.

According to Mr Stephen, the suspected illegal immigrants are collected by agents and placed in special houses where they are fed. After they reach a certain number they are placed in lorries and ferried to Malawi through Tanzania.
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June 27, 2012

Journalist Eskinder Nega and 23 others convicted

Filed under: Eskender Nega,Ethiopia — ethiopiantimes @ 8:31 pm
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NAIROBI – An Ethiopian court has convicted 24 people, including a prominent writer and an opposition leader on terrorism-related charges. Rights groups have condemned the verdict as an assault on the opposition.

Journalist Eskinder Nega and an opposition member Andualem Arage were among the eight defendants found guilty Wednesday by Ethiopia’s High Court in Addis Ababa. Another 16 people were convicted in absentia.

The men could face the death penalty for the charges including the encouragement of terrorism and high treason. Sentencing is expected next month.

The case against Eskinder included an argument that he had advocated for violence by writing about whether Ethiopia would ever experience the kind of Arab Spring uprising that swept North Africa.

He was also accused of supporting an outlawed political party called Ginbot Seven, which the government has labelled a terrorist group.

East Africa Representative for the Committee to Protect Journalists, Tom Rhodes, said the court cases were part of the government’s attempts to silence the opposition.

“It reflects a government now that is totally, has no acceptance of any form of criticism whatsoever and is cracking down on the press,” he said.

The defendants were convicted under a 2009 terrorism law that makes it illegal to publish any information deemed to encourage terrorist acts.

Two Ethiopian journalists were sentenced to 14 years in prison in January on similar charges. And two Swedish journalists convicted of supporting terrorism have been imprisoned for 11 years.

Rights groups have accused the government of using the law to silence dissent, and to target members of the ethnic Oromo opposition, a charge the government flatly denies.

Tom Rhodes says the anti-terrorism policy has effectively stamped out freedom of expression in the country.

“My impression is, and what I can gather from other local journalists in Ethiopia, especially Addis Ababa, is that the government is getting nervous about popular dissent against them and the first target on their list happens to be journalists and happens to be the media,” he said. “We really, we have only got one or two critical voices left in the country.”

Journalists and a human rights defender were among the 16 men who were sentenced in absentia Wednesday.

More than 100 ethnic Oromo political activists are also being tried on similar charges. Prosecutors allege they were involved with the outlawed Oromo Liberation Front, or OLF.

The defendants include the top leaders of the two main Oro

42 Ethiopian refugees escaping Meles Zenawi’s dictatorship found dead in a truck in Tanzania

Map

Tanzania’s Deputy Interior Minister Pereira Silima said they had come from Ethiopia and died from asphyxiation.

Local officials said more than 120 people had been packed into the truck, which was headed for Malawi.

Tanzanian and Malawi have become key staging posts for people fleeing drought and conflict in Somalia and Ethiopia, and trying to reach South Africa.

‘Dumped the dead’

Mr Silima said that according to survivor accounts, the 127 migrants had started off from Ethiopia in two trucks.

They passed through Kenya’s capital, Nairobi, and onto the Tanzania town of Arusha where they were transferred into one lorry, he told the BBC’s Network Africa programme.

The driver noticed there were problems in the central Dodoma region and stopped the vehicle.

“When he found out that at least 41 were dead, he released the survivors and dumped the dead in the bush,” the minister said.

The container truck then drove off and the authorities are trying to trace it and the driver, he said.

Nearby villagers helped the survivors, one of whom later died.

Mr Silima said when the migrants were well enough, they would be taken to court and their embassy would be contacted.

Last week, at least 47 East African migrants drowned when their boat capsized on Lake Malawi after sailing from Tanzania.

June 26, 2012

Food without freedom: Anti-government activists in Ethiopia call on foreign governments to question their country’s human rights record.

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Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi reads a joint declaration as the rest of the African leaders gather for a photo at the end of the summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation November 5, 2006 in Beijing, China. (Photo by Andrew Wong/Getty Images)

Ethiopia receives one of the highest amounts of foreign aid in the world. Much of that aid is food, but some human rights activists ask: what good is food, if you don’t have freedom?

Zenawi has been criticised for abusing anti-terrorism laws to prosecute members of political opposition and the media. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists, 11 journalists have been charged with terrorism and criminal suits since last year.

Now the government is discussing whether VOIP – or Voice over Internet Protocol – communications, like Skype, should be criminalised.

Many Ethiopian activists are calling on the international community to question the rights record of their country before sending aid. In this episode of The Stream, we speak to journalist Abebe Gellaw and Berhanu Nega, former mayor of Addis Ababa.

What do you think? What role should human rights play in supporting development aid? How much control should the government have over its telecommunications? Read More on ALJAZEERA

Opposition Unity in Diversity a must for Ethiopia’s Territorial Integrity

Filed under: Ethiopia — ethiopiantimes @ 7:07 pm
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Opposition Unity in Diversity a must for Ethiopia’s Territorial Integrity

Press Release

የኢትዮጵያ ሕዝብ የጋራ ትግል ሸንጎ (ሸንጎ)
Ethiopian People’s Congress for United Struggle (Congress)
www.derbiaber.com shengo.derbiaber@gmail.com

Two decades have passed since TPLF/EPRDF imposed its brazen ethnocentric and repressive regime on our country, Ethiopia. Its large-scale measures of repression and terrorization of the Ethiopian people have continued unabated.
A United Struggle is a Necessity, not an Option!

Over the years, TPLF/EPRDF has shown that it is inherently undemocratic in its governance. It has stifled all political dissent. Prisons and detention centers are overcrowded with actual and perceived opposition leaders and their members, who are persecuted merely for their political beliefs. TPLF/EPRDF has effectively denied the Ethiopian people freedom of expression and press freedom is practically nonexistent; its draconian press, “anti-terrorism”, and other repressive ‘laws’ criminalize any commentary and dissent against the TPLF/EPRDF regime. As such, the regime keeps silencing anyone with differing views. Over the last several years, more journalists have been forced into exile than any other country in the world. Hardly could one find any free press in operation in Ethiopia—be it in print, online or other forms of media.

TPLF/EPRDF continues to hand out large tracts of fertile land to neighboring countries and foreign investors while forcibly uprooting the inhabitants from their own lands. The regime’s self-serving greed has not even spared holy places like the Waldba Monastery whose religious site has just been leased to foreigners. Worse still, the TPLF/EPRDF minority group, which thrives on divide & rule systems, has deliberately created and fomented inter-communal conflicts among people of various ethnic and religious groups. Ethiopian Moslems have also been targets of the regime. It has interfered in the religious leadership of the Moslem community and has arrested the faithful worshipers at the mosque. The need for all Ethiopians to join hands so as to reverse the appalling and critical situation has never been more compelling now than ever before.

The forceful eviction of over 87,000 Amharas from the southern Ethiopia speaks volume of its dangerous ethnic cleansing agenda. As the regime swells its pocket from the plunder of Ethiopia, the cost of living has created misery and destitution for the masses of the land. As the situation gets worse, it is becoming more apparent that there is a burning need for all Ethiopians to join hands together to reverse this appalling trend before it extends to a full blown crisis with unpredictable consequences.

It is upon realizing the dangerous trend and intending consequences stirred by the TPLF/EPRDF’s brutal and dictatorial rule that various Ethiopian opposition groups set out to collectively find solutions towards bringing democratic changes and lasting peace to the suffering of our people. About two years ago, a few prominent Ethiopians started the process by calling on all Ethiopian opposition forces to form an alliance. This was followed by a number of political and civic organizations as well as other prominent Ethiopians joining the alliance-building effort. The initiative made all effort to make the process all inclusive and relied on financial and moral support of many Ethiopians worldwide. Finally, from May 18 to 21, 2012 an all-parties conference attended by several Ethiopian political & civic organizations and renowned individuals was held in Canada’s capital, Ottawa. The participants assessed the prevailing situation of Ethiopia and reflected on the lessons learned from past experiences of alliances and coalitions. The Conference culminated in a unanimous agreement to form an alliance and the
establishment of the Ethiopian People’s Congress for United Struggle (hereinafter “The Congress”).

The Congress stipulated five unifying points, namely, accepting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ethiopia; respecting the rule of law; accepting a democratic system of governance; believing in the equality of all citizens before the law; and believing in the removal of the dictatorial regime of TPLF/EPRDF and replacing it with a democratic political system accountable to the people.

Further, the Congress approved its bylaws together with its structure and it named its executive leadership and various departments. Unique to this Congress, a Council of Elders was created with a mandate to resolve any issues that may arise among the members of the Congress.

Finally, the Congress extends its open arms for any political and civic groups as well as individuals who share our five cornerstone values to join us in the struggle for a better Ethiopia.

Thank you.
A united struggle to bring about a lasting peace, democratic and just system in Ethiopia

Ethiopia: Monetizing of food aid? One more disastrous development strategy

EPRDF always brags about its commitment to the wellbeing of small holder farmers. It frequently claims its stride for increased product and productivity of this group, which is making 80 percent of the total population. Despite all these fanfare, the actual policies and strategies being implemented to date are argued to aggravate than alleviate the misery of its “constituency”. Two of the major disastrous development policies and strategies mostly challenged at present are the following:

Land Tenure System

Under this regime, farmers have only the right to use the land owned by the government. They do not have a right to sell or mortgage their land holdings. The regime’s argument for this strict and narrow measure is protecting the rural peasants from selling off their land to wealthy individuals leaving them landless and without source of livelihoods. But the outcome of this socialist rule is devastating. State ownership has prevented the development of land markets, discourages farmers to invest on it, and thereby keeps down productivity as well as encourages unsustainable land use practices. Subsistent farming system with high dependence on rain fed agriculture and traditional practices is the result of this policy. A chronic food insecurity of about 12 million and acute food shortage of about 3-5 people every year is largely attributed to this failed land tenure system.

Land Sell or Lease for Commercial Agriculture

Since recent years, the problem to the land tenure has become even worse. Ethiopian farmers now are facing not only food security but also food sovereignty problems. Under the present situation where the regime is selling large tract of arable land to the Indians, Saudis, Pakistanis and Chinese transnational corporations, small holder farmers are denied and disenfranchised with their land using right. Woyane is now retailing fertile lands (at cheaper price of less than $1 per ha) for exportable food crops, while millions of local people are suffering from severe food shortage. According to the Economist (2009)1, Saudi Arabia has invested $100-million to grow and export rice, wheat and barley on a 99-year land-lease in Ethiopia, while the United Nations World Food Program has planned to spend $116-million, for five-year food emergency aid to 4.6 million hungry Ethiopians. Hundreds of thousands of small holder farmers in Gambella, Southern Ethiopia, Afar and Amhara regions are forcefully displaced from their ancestral land and in exchange they are thrown out into marginalized land where there is no clinic, school, water, basic infrastructure and other social services. People in these regions are already started to claim their food sovereignty. But government responses to such legitimate claims are political and military force. Those people who claimed their rights are either being imprisoned or killed or migrated from their villages.

The third catastrophic development strategy in the pipeline is the program to monetize food aids.

Monetization of Food Aid

As it has been reported from different sources, the ruling regime is in a process of monetizing imported food aids and diverts them to solve the country’s “electric supply problem”. As quoted in an article2 posted in Ethiomedia, Dr. Eleni Gabre-Medhin of the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX), has reported the following:

“We are currently in discussions with the government about how to take on a much bigger way maize and wheat trading in the country, including monetization of imported food aid into the country through the exchange.”

Let us not argue about the plausibility of this program for a while. But simply considering its effect on small holders’ livelihood, we could identify two disastrous threats. I do not know how those TPLF policy makers are justifying the possibility of getting surplus aid food while 12 million people are already in chronic and 3 million people are in acute food scarcity. Is this not because of food shortage that we are getting international food aid in the first place? Is it not against the objective and ethics of the aid program to divert the food assistance to other purposes? I think our poor farmers have already lost their food security and food sovereignty rights from being denied of owning and accessing land. But, worse of all, if this policy is materialized, they are going to lose their God-given survival right too.

Another tremendous threat of this strategy is its potential harm to small holder farmers’ food production and marketing capacities. When monetized foods are brought to the local markets, prices3 will fall down to attract more consumers for imported food but discourage poor farmers’ competitive capacity. As more and more aids are monetized into the local markets, they may have created dependency on imported foods. But since aids are short term activities, phasing-out of monetization would finally shock the marketing chain and potentially harm the country’s consumers, millers, traders and other operators both in the demand and supply chains. Vegetable oil monetized in the past is a very good example for the present severe shortage of cooking oils and dependency on imported supplies.

Is this part of the conspiracy theory?

Monetization of food aid is already criticized by the United Nation Food and Agriculture Organization, the European Union, the United States and many NGOs. It is condemned as an inefficient strategy which could disrupt local prices and markets. In spite of all these red flags, however, our ethno-centric rulers are working day and night to introduce it as an “innovative” way of securing addition resource for the so-called “electric supply projects”. I do not believe that they are doing it because they are ignorant about its drawbacks and subsequent damage on millions of small holder farmers. Rather they are using it because it is part of the conspiracy theory towards long term plan of empire building at the expense of the demise of Ethiopia.

This is one more of colossal threats to the destruction of our beloved country. Let us expose it!!!! Let us repeal it!!!!!
June 26, 2012

June 24, 2012

Tinsae Ethiopia relaunches BEKA campaign in Ethiopia

Filed under: Azeb Mesfin,Meles Zenawi — ethiopiantimes @ 10:58 am
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Tinsae Ethiopia relaunches BEKA campaign in Ethiopia

Tinsae | June 19th, 2012

Tinsae Ethiopia has relaunched its BEKA (enough) campaign in Ethiopia by distributing pamphlets and writing the Beka slogan in Addis Ababa and other cities. Beka is a slogan that calls for an end to the Woyanne rule in Ethiopia. Writing Beka slogan on walls is part of Tinsae Ethiopia’s civil resistance campaign that includes economic boycott, disabling Woyanne’s economic infrastructure, and helping create a transitional government to replace Woyanne. The following are some of the photos that we have received from Tinsae Ethiopia units in Addis Ababa and Bahr Dar.

[Near Ledeta Federal Court]

[High Court in Addis Ababa]

June 23, 2012

Meles Zenawi is “gravely ill” from brain tumor

Filed under: Meles Zenawi — ethiopiantimes @ 9:41 pm
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June 22, 2012 — Ethiopian dictator Meles Zenawi appeared visibly thin and frail during the G-20 summit held in the

Meles Zenawi is "gravely ill" from brain tumor

Dictator Meles Zenawi appears shockingly thinner and frail in under a month

Mexican resort town of Los Cabos last Tuesday, raising speculation that the 57-year-old former guerrilla fighter’s health is rapidly deteriorating.

Rumors of the premier’s ill-health were first brought to light by ESAT last week, after unnamed sources tipped off the Amsterdam-based satellite news agency over Zenawi’s secretive and frequent medical trips to Brussels, who is reportedly suffering from a persistent grade III brain tumor.

Speaking on condition of anonymity, a security officer with ties to the elusive Ethiopian National Intelligence and Security Service, revealed to Durame by phone that Meles is “gravely ill” and does indeed suffer from a number of aliments, including Astrocytoma, type 2 diabetes, and depression.

“Meles Zenawi’s gaunt appearance of late does seem to indicate he’s suffering from some type of severe aliment. It seems decades of poor diet, excessive drinking and smoking have finally caught up with him.”, said Zeray Gebremariam, a 58-year-old former TPLF fighter by phone.

Despite the preimers attempts to conceal his alcohol and cigarette addictions from public eye, he has on rare occasions given inklings to journalists of his battles with substance abuse. In 1991, upon observing a no smoking sign during a breif exam in London, Meles said to a reporter, “I’ve spent the last 17 years fighting a civil war but I’ve never been so frightened as I am now. There’s no way I’ll sit the exam without a fag! [British slang for cigarette]“[1]

June 21, 2012

Ethiopia: Throw your liberation front ideology in the garbage, genetic research shows we are one and unique

Filed under: Ethiopia,genetic research — ethiopiantimes @ 9:52 pm
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Queen of Sheba meets King Solomon.
A depiction of the Queen of Sheba meeting King Solomon of Israel from the Florence Baptistry in Italy.
CREDIT: Photograph by Richardfabi, distributed under a Creative Commons license by Wikimedia.

The Queen of Sheba’s genetic legacy may live on in Ethiopia, according to new research that finds evidence of long-ago genetic mixing between Ethiopian populations and Syrian and Israeli people.

The Queen of Sheba, known in Ethiopia as Makeda, is mentioned in both the Bible and the Quran. The Bible discusses diplomatic relations between this monarch and King Solomon of Israel, but Ethiopian tradition holds that their relationship went deeper: Makeda’s son, Menelik I, the first emperor of Ethiopia, is said to be Solomon’s offspring.

Whether this tale is true or not, new evidence reveals close links between Ethiopia and groups outside of Africa. Some Ethiopians have 40-50 percent of their genomes that match more closely with populations outside of Africa than those within, while the rest of the genomes more closely match African populations, said study researcher Toomas Kivisild of the University of Cambridge. [History’s Most Overlooked Mysteries]

“We calculated genetic distances and found that these non-African regions of the genome are closest to the populations in Egypt, Israel and Syria,” Kivislid said in a statement.

From its perch on the Horn of Africa, Ethiopia is the site of early hominin discoveries such as “Lucy,” a fossilized Australopithecus afarensis and an early human ancestor. Ethiopia is also a gateway between Africa and Asia, according to Kivislid and his colleagues. But few genetic studies have delved specifically into the Ethiopian genome.

Both agriculture and linguistics show a link between Ethiopia and lands outside of Africa. For example, archaeologists have uncovered wheat and barley farming in Ethiopia, agriculture that first arose in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East. Linguistically, Ethio-Semitic, a language spoken both in Ethiopia and nearby Eritrea, has been traced to a Middle Eastern origin.

To better understand the genetic ties between Ethiopia and the rest of the world, Kivislid and his colleagues analyzed the genomes of 188 Ethiopian men from 10 diverse populations. The men came from different regions and spoke different languages.

The results revealed that the Ethiopian genome is less ancient than those of some South African populations, and that Ethiopian genes are quite diverse. Language hinted at genetics, the researchers found: Speakers of Semetic and Cushitic tongues were shown to have genomes about half comprised of genes from non-African origins. Other groups were characterized by mixes of eastern and western African genes.

Tracing the genomic changes, the researchers found that the non-African and African genes first mingled about 3,000 years ago rather than during more recent times, the researchers reported today (June 21) in the American Journal of Human Genetics. [Most Tragic Love Stories in History]

That timeline confirms what linguistic studies have suggested about links between the Middle East and Ethiopia during this time period, the researchers wrote. It also matches records and tales of the reign of the Queen of Sheba from about 1005 to 955 B.C., when trade routes were established and a royal son, perhaps, was born. Relations between the Horn of Africa and the Middle East would continue for centuries.

“These long-lasting links between the two regions are reflected in influences still apparent in the modern Ethiopian cultural, and, as we show here, genetic landscapes,” the researchers wrot

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